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How Many BTU Do I Need for an Outdoor Fire Pit?

How Many BTU Do I Need for an Outdoor Fire Pit?

An outdoor fire pit can transform your backyard into an inviting place for relaxing evenings with family and friends. With a fire pit, you can extend outdoor living well into cool autumn nights.

However, not all fire pits provide the same amount of warmth. So how do you determine the BTU output needed for your patio or deck? Let's find out:

Key Takeaways

  • BTU (British Thermal Unit) measures the heat energy a fire pit can produce per hour. Higher BTUs = more heat & flame output.

  • Consider the size of space, climate, desired warmth level, and fuel type when determining needed BTUs.

  • For small patios (~150 sq ft), aim for 10,000+ BTUs. For larger areas, choose fire pits with 50,000 - 150,000 BTUs.

  • Portable propane fire pits range from 14,000 - 40,000 BTUs. Permanent backyard fire pits reach 50,000 - 150,000 BTUs.

a deck with a sunken sitting area with a fire pit surrounded by greenery

    What is BTU and How it Relates to Fire Pits

    BTU stands for British Thermal Unit and measures the amount of heat energy. Specifically, one BTU is the energy required to raise one pound of water by one degree Fahrenheit. For fire pits, BTU indicates the maximum amount of heat the fire pit can produce per hour.

    So, the higher the BTU rating of your fire pit, the more heat and flame output it can deliver. This makes BTUs one of the most important specifications to consider when shopping for an outdoor fire pit. The BTU rating directly correlates to factors like:

    • Warmth generated
    • Flame height/intensity
    • Heated area capacity
    • Fuel efficiency

    Understanding BTUs will ensure you buy a fire pit with the right heat output for your preferences and space requirements.

    An illustrated diagram showing the heating output in BTUs (British Thermal Units) of a fire pit at various distances to seating areas.

    Factors That Determine How Many BTUs You Need

    While BTUs indicate the potential heat performance of a fire pit, there are several other variables that impact real-world heating capacity. Consider these key factors when deciding on your ideal BTU level:

    Size of Space Needing Heat

    The size of your patio, deck, or backyard directly correlates to the BTU rating needed. Here are some general BTU guidelines based on square footage:

    Size of Patio or Backyard (sq ft) Recommended BTUs
    150 At least 10,000
    250 Around 20,000
    550 Approximately 40,000
    800 Around 60,000
    1,200 At least 80,000
    2,500 Up to 160,000

    So for a small patio up to 150 sq ft, a fire pit with 40,000 BTUs should suffice. For larger outdoor rooms, you’ll need progressively more BTUs.

    Type of Fire Pit

    The fuel your fire pit uses, whether wood, propane, or natural gas, affects its heat efficiency.

    • Wood-burning fire pits range from 30,000 to 100,000 BTUs but lose much heat to the surroundings.
    • Propane fire pits reach 40,000 to 150,000 BTUs. Though they burn hot, a liquid propane fire pit doesn’t last as long as other fuels.
    • Natural gas fire pits output 30,000 to 60,000 BTUs consistently. Natural gas provides even, long-lasting heat for the duration of use.

    Desired Warmth Level

    Colder climates need fire pits with higher BTUs to meet the energy needed. Warmer regions may require less BTUs to prevent overheating.

    Consider your personal comfort level as well. Do you prefer a roaring fire or gentle flame ambiance? Your individual preferences impact BTU's needs.

    Weather Conditions

    Wind, cold temperatures, and moisture can dissipate heat, so you may need higher BTUs on cold, blustery evenings.

    Rain and snow also lower the perceived temperature, increasing BTU requirements. Consider seasonal weather patterns in your area when selecting a fire pit.


    Higher elevations require more BTUs since thinner air provides less oxygen for efficient fuel burning. Add 10-20% more BTUs if your area is over 2000 feet.

    This table summarizes the key factors influencing fire pit BTU requirements:

    Factor Considerations
    Space Size Bigger spaces need higher BTUs
    Climate Colder climates need more BTUs
    Desired Warmth Personal comfort preferences affect needs
    Weather Conditions Wind, cold, rain/snow increase BTUs needed
    Altitude Higher elevations need increased BTUs

    BTU Recommendations Fire Pit By Type

    Beyond determining overall BTU needs, consider the different styles of fire pits available.

    Portable Propane Fire Pits

    Ranging from just 14,000 BTUs on the low end to 40,000 BTUs for larger models, portable propane fire pits offer convenience and flexibility. They’re easy to move to different areas of your outdoor space.

    The smaller BTU capacity limits the heat output though, so portable propane fire pits function better for ambiance than providing ample warmth on cool nights.

    Permanent Backyard Fire Pits

    Hardscaped into a permanent location, masonry backyard fire pits tap into either propane or natural gas supplies to fuel the fire. They range from 50,000 to 150,000 BTUs for ample heating.

    Permanent fire pits with 60,000 to 100,000 BTUs work well to heat medium to large patios efficiently.

    Fire Pit Tables

    Fire tables combine form and function, with the fire contained in the center of a sturdy table perfect for holding drinks and snacks.

    Run off a 20-pound liquid propane tank hidden within the cabinet, fire pit tables emit around 50,000 BTUs on average. Some larger models reach up to 70,000 BTUs.

    Fire pit tables work best on relatively small patios, surrounded by seating to take advantage of the heat.

    A wine bottle and a glass on a table with an integrated fire pit, alongside a plate of fruit and a cozy outdoor seating area in the background.

    Tips for Determining the Right Fire Pit BTUs

    Choosing the perfect outdoor fireplace BTU level requires weighing several variables. Keep these tips in mind:

    • Record low/high temperatures in your area monthly to determine seasonal exposure.
    • Use an online BTU calculator for general estimates based on your square footage.
    • Research specific makes and models of fire pits in your desired style to compare actual BTU ratings.
    • Consider portable fire pits if flexibility outweighs heating power.
    • Opt for wood-burning fire pits only if allowed/desired for a rustic, smokey smell.
    • Pick fuel-burning models sized appropriately for easy fuel replacement.
    • Determine allowable BTU ratings per local fire codes for permanent installations.
    • Consider a programmable thermostat model to customize the heat.
    • Test the comfort level of the fire pit before finalizing.

    Taking time to assess your climate, heating needs, and style preferences will pay off with years of enjoyment around your custom-selected backyard fire pit.

    While BTUs primarily relate to heat output, you should also consider safety:

    • Carefully follow installation and operation specs to prevent leaks.
    • Allow for adequate ventilation to prevent gas buildup.
    • Use a mesh screen to contain sparks and embers.
    • Keep portable units upright when moving them.
    • Shut off the gas supply when not in use.
    • Keep children and pets away from hot surfaces.

    In particular, larger fire pits with greater BTUs require more safety precautions, as they reach higher temperatures.

    An outdoor area with a rectangular fire pit and comfortable seating, including white chairs with orange cushions, and a dining set in the background.


    When considering the perfect size of a fire pit for your outdoor area, you must weigh many factors to determine the right amount of BTUs. For a typical patio of around 200 square feet, a fire pit needs at least 40,000 BTUs for ample warmth. Of course, you can always turn down a valve on a high-BTU fire pit burner to customize the flames.

    So as you search for your dream outdoor fire pit, note both the BTUs per burner along the number of burners. This indicates the maximum BTUs a fire pit can generate using wood, charcoal, propane, or natural gas. Checking BTUs helps guarantee you get everything you need from the fire’s glow and warmth to properly enjoy your outdoor living space year-round.


    How many BTUs do I need for a gas fire pit in my outdoor area?

    There isn't a one-size-fits-all answer, as the number of BTUs needed for a backyard fire pit depends on many factors. However, most large fire pits typically require a minimum of 70,000 to 150,000 BTUs.

    Does the fire media I use in my outdoor fire pit affect the BTUs?

    Yes, the kind of fuel you're using greatly affects the BTUs. Natural gas and LP are sold by the BTU, whereas the BTUs generated by wood fire depend on the type of wood and how dry it is.

    Why does my natural gas outdoor fire pit require so many BTUs?

    Natural gas fire pits require more BTUs because natural gas is a less energy-dense fuel than propane gas. In other words, it takes more natural gas to produce the same amount of energy as a smaller amount of propane.

    Can wood burning fire pits create as many BTUs as a gas fire pit?

    In theory, yes. But in practice, gas fire pits often produce more BTUs because the fuel (either natural gas or propane) is more efficient and consistent. Wood burning fire pits’ heat output can be more variable, depending on the dryness and type of wood you're using.

    Can I adjust the BTUs on my fire pit?

    Yes, if your fire pit has a gas burner, you can usually adjust the BTUs by controlling the flow of gas to the burner. This allows you to manage the amount of heat your fire pit produces, providing everything from a cozy flame to a high BTU, vibrant fire.

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    About The Author

    Andy Wu - Resident Expert

    Andy Wu - Resident Expert

    Andy Wu is the resident backyard products expert and hails from Atlanta, Georgia. His passion for crafting outdoor retreats began in 2003.

    As a fellow homeowner, he founded Backyard Oasis to provide top-quality furnishings and equipment, collaborating with leading manufacturers.

    His main focus is on sheds and generators!

    In his spare time he like to hike the tallest mountains in the world and travel with his family.

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